But how could the experimenters be sure that if tortoise B yawned
after tortoise A, it was a genuine example of mimicry?
The most frequent activities in which subjects were engaged when they yawned
were sitting in class (21.
The participants then watched a three-minute video of people yawning, and recorded the number of times they yawned
while watching the video.
I participated in a study [published in Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience in September 2010] that confirmed this dynamic after we observed changes in the brain temperature of rats before and after the animals yawned
The first I should like to mention is a paper called Dogs Catch Human Yawns (by R M Joly-Mascheroni et al in Biology Letters, 2008) which reported an experiment in which 29 dogs watched a human yawning at them and the experiments counted how many of them yawned
In another set of tests, rats yawned
more as the temperature rose and their brains heated up, Gallup and colleagues reported in the February Ethology.
During and immediately after the yawning videos, the chimps yawned
more than twice as often as they yawned
after watching nonyawning chimps.
So one day a guy yawned
, and coach Smith pulled out a water gun and shot the guy in the mouth.
A trial sequence consisted of 7 five-minute sessions: a baseline session, followed by three experimental sessions, where the human repeatedly either yawned
, gaped or nose-wiped, and three post-experimental sessions, where social interactions continued without the inclusion of the key behaviours.
If stress were the main factor, then the dogs would probably have yawned
during a modified version of the test, in which the person caught the dog's eye and then silently made a face, but didn't yawn.
Wherever I am, I either hesitate to say (`shut up'), or I expect to be given push-ups when I do,'' said Medina, a graduate of Palmdale High School, where women's volleyball coach Connie Burns ordered push-ups when her players yawned
In the study by Teresa Romero and colleagues from the University of Tokyo, pet dogs watched their owner or a stranger yawn, or mimic a yawning mouth movement, but yawned
significantly more in response to their owners' actions than to the strangers' yawns.