The Lovett Episcopal School in Atlanta also benefited from white flight
. Prior to Brown, only four private schools existed in Atlanta but by 1971, that number had expanded to fifty-nine schools (Gannon 2004, 31).
We hypothesize that public transportation was critical for the acceleration of white flight
because street-cars and subways significantly reduced the cost of living further away from employment centers.
He famously predicted a "tipping point" where white flight
would reach a critical level that rapidly turned a diversifying neighbourhood back into a segregated one.
Beverly didn't want to be a neighborhood of white flight
. So in the 1970s, some of the white residents felt that integration was inevitable.
For example, white flight
from integrating schools, a topic that Coleman (in other studies) explored in considerable depth, certainly slowed the rate of desegregation, especially during the years 1968 to 1980, when the most aggressive desegregation steps were being taken.
"Place stratification" refers to the enforced exclusion of African Americans from suburbia: "Because whites use segregation to maintain social distance, present-day residential segregation--particularly blacks' segregation from whites--is best understood as emanating from structural forces tied to racial prejudice and discrimination that preserve the relative status advantages of whites." (11) "White flight
" is a weaker version of place stratification in which the segregation of African Americans results from whites leaving racially mixed neighborhoods.
Witnesses told CBS Los Angeles the passengers were removed from Flight 868 after a white flight
attendant accused a member in the group of being a threat.
Shades of White Flight
: Evangelical Congregations and Urban Departure
Detroit, Michigan, was once a thriving city but was sent into a tailspin by the deindustrialization of the United States, white flight
, and institutional racism which blamed black people who were in fact the victims of catastrophe.
Much like the first wave of big city, Northern, Black mayors who confronted an urban landscape ravaged by deindustrialization, shrinking budgets, white flight
, underfunded school systems, and tense police-community relations in the 1960s and 1970s, nearly fifty years later the first Black president would confront two on-going wars, a stagnant economy, rising levels of inequality, and a sinking standard of living for the majority of Americans.
Under Hartsfield, municipal leaders "trigger[ed]" white flight
on the southside and westside to make way for black residents.
MACOMB COUNTY: BENEFICIARY OF BOTH BLACK AND WHITE FLIGHT
A city in bankruptcy, white flight
, crumbling infrastructure, epidemic unemployment, and a host of other exacerbated urban ills.
In the countless Detroit post-mortems, many potential villains have emerged: the ineffectiveness of Coleman Young, mayor from 1974 to 1994; white flight
(from 1970 to 2008, the white portion of the city's population fell from 56 percent to 11 percent); costly government workers' pensions.
Growth in the Midwest, like the Northeast, dropped in the 1970s, due in large part to increasingly turbulent race relations in certain urban areas, resulting in white flight
. The region's well-being was further damaged by the declining automobile industry on which many parts of the Midwest had become highly dependent (Jones, T., Chicago Tribune, 2009).