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Systematic errors also come from the urban heat island effect, which says that as cities have grown buildings, concrete, pavement, tree clearing - they have warmed that environment.
Reason: And the atmosphere has warmed at certain levels.
The surface has warmed at a rate of 0.15 [degrees] C per decade, while the lower atmosphere temperatures have increased only 0.04 [degrees] C per decade.
Greenhouse skeptics point out that the lower atmosphere up to 7 kilometers has not warmed over the last 20 years, since satellites started making measurements.
Still, people are most concerned about Earth's surface, which has warmed by almost 0.7 [degrees] C since the end of the 19th century, according to WMO.
This reluctant section of the Pacific may explain why Earth has not warmed as quickly as expected, says Mark A.
Using a computer model of the tropical ocean, they artificially warmed the climate and found that winds and ocean currents work to cool the eastern Pacific.
Despite the absence of greenhouse gas data, the modeled atmosphere warmed up.
Graham's study delves even deeper to explain how the tropical ocean warmed the atmosphere.
During the 1981 expedition, researchers discovered that the western portion of the Atlantic had warmed by as much as several tenths of a degree Celsius since 1957.
Earth has warmed by 0.5 degrees C during this period, but researchers have long puzzled over the uneven rate of change.
The reduction in clouds warmed the planet because more sunlight could reach its surface.
On three occasions, he and his colleagues cooled each of six people in 8 [degrees] C water, then allowed them to warm up by one of three methods: shivering alone in a sleeping bag, lying next to and hugging the back of another person while in a sleeping bag, or doing the same with a water-filled mannequin warmed to body temperature.