A distinction has sometimes been drawn between a 'discretion' strictly so called (where legislation provides that a tribunal may choose within a range or between several courses and, given the subjective content of the decision, there is no single correct answer) and where legislation provides for the exercise of a 'value judgment
' (where an objective assessment or evaluation of the facts is required or a balancing exercise is undertaken and there is in theory at least only one correct answer, even where because of the flexible nature of the concepts under review rational minds might arrive at different answers).
The public authority must take into account that a value judgment
is essentially a perfectionist value, and this perfectionist value takes the moral individual and does not require proof of truth, for it is impossible to prove an opinion related to a person's character, for example.
In his article on value judgments
, Ropke calls this a type of "axiological relativism," (19) one that stigmatizes "as 'unscientific'" the expression of "any definite views on values, ends and 'oughts.'" (20) Though Ropke surmises that few social scientists are entirely at ease with actually holding such a position, he stresses that the same people find it difficult "to know how to answer the seemingly irrefutable argument that scientific measure of truth cannot be applied to values and ends." (21)
The first is the classification of the entity, or the behavior thereof, in order to trigger a value judgment
. Such a value judgment
results in the next step which results in transferring an abstract commitment (honesty shall be praised) to a specific one (this man shall be praised).
First, it is clear that the potential-compensation criterion does involve a value judgment
every time one individual is favored over another.
But obviously this sort of evaluation can be done as easily for value judgments
as for factual judgments; hence, value judgments
are no less testable than factual judgments.
But we should not accept the value judgment
of a man whose political career was spent resisting democratizing forces.
Officiating is made up of a sequential series of the processes and responses shown in the accompanying chart: Vision, Thinking, Decision-Making, and Value Judgment
Again, the matter calls for a value judgment
, but I suspect a tax system that imposes its highest relative burdens on our youngest and oldest taxpayers does not have strong intuitive appeal.
Even the term "value judgment
" was absent from the vocabulary of social science until roughly the second half of the nineteenth century.
Again, we find a trend toward fewer MS attacks in the group, but the number of patients is too small to make a value judgment
. Significantly, all the patients have asked to continue in the trial, which they have been allowed to do."
Quality criteria to be evaluated through a value judgment
What really worries me about the Chinese proposed system is that "all these behaviors are rated as either positive or negative and distilled into a single number, according to rules set by the government." In other words, there is a value judgment
to everything you do.
So much on the pacifist intentions of the Relativists--intentions which, by the way, are based on a rather dubious value judgment
on "peace at any price." Equally polite must be our attitude with regard to the argument that we must not abuse the authority of science for expressing purely political convictions which, if not clearly marked as such, may be smuggled into science.
This study examined student characteristics and perceptions of university effectiveness, defined as a value judgment
based on students perceptions of congruence between the importance of several activity domains and how well the domains are achieved by the institution.