Another shift in terms of the who of tramping involves women.
Suggesting a degree of Edwardian insularity, domestic travel constitutes, at least initially, the primary where of tramping in The Tramp, the last of my three categories.
In September, Lord Congleton, in an article entitled 'The Tramp in London' which follows immediately after Lewis's 'Le Pere Francois,' asks: 'Why have we never been asked to feel pleasure when tramping the London pavements?
(99, 102) This aspect of women's tramping experience translated into much scientific and popular writing on the nature of their bodies, especially in regards to physical appearance and health.
Todd DePastino's Citizen Hobo explores "the history of homelessness as a category of culture as well as economy, focusing especially on how its racialized and gendered meanings shaped the entitlements and exclusions of 'social citizenship' in modern America." (xix) Like Cresswell, DePastino makes fruitful use of the well-known commentators of tramping life during the Gilded Age and Progressive Era--Jacob Riis, Nels Anderson, James McCook, and Carleton Parker especially.
Generally speaking, tramping "was a young man's pursuit, a virtual stage in the working-class life cycle": for this majority group, "the road represented a brief stage of poverty, an episodic experience rather than a permanent condition." (15) In the 1870s, the term "tramp" conveyed the new-found mobility of the unskilled worker, whereas "vagrant" usually referred to the sedentary urban poor.
Similarly, at bottom, he recognizes the power of the tourists, tramping
round Europe at their leisure, to transform, threaten the integrity of, and act as parasite on their cultural host.
TOE CLEVER BY HALF: Flounder tramping
champ David Leith shows off his feet - and trophies