, the amplitude of the (P13-N23) is highly variable among subjects or even in one subject between trials and between methods used to elicit the response and they attributed this variability to lack of cooperation from participant, the presence of neck stiffness and inability to keep the SCM tonically
contracted for long time.
Local interneurons tonically
release GABA, activating dendritic formation and extensions into the molecular layer.
With the example of the lumbar multifidus muscles, electromyography studies demonstrate that the deep fibers of multifidus are not tonically
active during all posture and movement tasks.
Almost every cell in our body has chemoreceptors, since they need to control local p[O.sub.2] and pC[O.sub.2] tonically
. As tlie existing skeletal muscles have chemoreceptors that drive the exercise pressor reflex, massive sympathoexcitation is driven during exercise.
Potentiation of opioid analgesia in dopamine 2 receptor knock-out mice: Evidence for a tonically
active anti-opioid system.
Deng et al., "Exercise training lowers the enhanced tonically
active glutamatergic input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertensive rats," CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics, vol.
active endogenous opioid systems modulate the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway.
High energy flux mediates the tonically
augmented beta-adrenergic support of resting metabolic rate in habitually exercising older adults.
Spontaneous glutamate release is independent of calcium influx and tonically
activated by the calcium-sensing receptor.
(26) GABAergic neurons in some of these nuclei exert the same response as the VTA, for example the GABAergic system of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is tonically
active and decreases the arterial pressure and heart rate.
A neurological condition of unknown origin characterized by a tonically
dilated pupil, an unusual asymmetric presentation known as Anisocria.
elevated sympathetic tone with extended sleep periods.
This relationship is consistent with the proposed role of leptin in food reward, in which leptin is thought to tonically
inhibit brain reward pathways .
The substantia nigra pars reticulata tonically
inhibits the superior colliculus (SC) via GABA-ergic projections, whereas pausing the inhibitory SC input provides a prerequisite for saccadic release .