Apart from doublets and triplets, there is one suffixal
'quadruplet', involving the suffixes -NESS, -HOOD, -LAC and -SHIP in the words fairnes(se, fairhede, fair-lek and fairshipe.
nature of such prosodies is also seen in the oft-cited case of Chaha, a Semitic language spoken in Ethiopia:
Only three forms in the collected data have /?/ or /e/ in the suffixal
reduplicant (forms (g-i) below).
We also find heterogeneity regarding morphological structure since there are suffixal
and parasynthetic formations in this class.
In quantitative terms, these suffixal
forms enter further affxal derivations (129 instances) as well as compounding processes (278 instances).
The verb in Ikalanga comprises of the verb root (VR) which hosts (suffixal
) extensions such as those shown in example (3):
Yadav's description (1996: 1641), in that language the suffixal
element -ih- is restricted to the imperative mood, where its presence distinguishes the future (e.g., hau sunar 15 ghar dekh-ih-ah "0 Sunar, have an eye on the house") from the present (e.g., (to) cal-ah "(You) go!").
This typologicaI diffference may weaken the assumption that all Romance languages are governed by the same patterns of suffixal
delimitation, and may also prove that English derivational guidelines of affixal segmentation do not apply to other languages of international circulation such as Spanish or Portuguese.
Overall, there is no doubt that the formation of Old English nouns is mainly the product of compounding and, when it results from affixation, it is clearly suffixal
The figure is high not only in comparison with prefixed adverbs, but also with respect to the total number of adverbs: around forty percent of adverbs are suffixal
. Instances of adverb suffixation include:
This makes it possible to attribute the loss of TAM prior to AGR to a structural constraint * MultSuff, which penalizes expression of TAM in the presence of another suffix (e.g., the suffixal
forms include the following suffixes: -le, -er, -ure, -(i)an, -ion, -ness, and -y.
I am unable to present a comprehensive overview and will limit myself to the following examples dealing mostly with suffixal
adaptation of borrowed adjectives: Czech (Karlik et al.
The -ci element hardly ever occurred in a suffixal
function two or three hundred years ago, while -lma/-lmo, for instance, was a highly frequent suffix at the end of the 18th and at the beginning of the 19th century, but has become much less common by now.
Middle Mongolian has seven indicative endings: suffixal
elements that close a predicate and can be used freely with subjects of all three persons.