cases, the primary harm lies in the substitutive
effects upon the
There was no interim detention of the accused prior to a court hearing, and if convicted, they did not go to jail but received other substitutive
3) In addition, the negative sign of this coefficient is an indication that internal R&D and R&D cooperation can be substitutive
For example, responding with respect to classes of stimuli as observed in equivalence studies entails responding in a substitutive
manner with respect to all members of the same class of stimuli (e.
They are in a category of materialists I'm going to look at later, whom I'll call substitutive
While one stream of research clearly outlines the benefits of combining relational governance with formal control (Cannon, Achrol & Gundlach, 2000; Poppo & Zenger, 2002), a second stream notes their substitutive
or even antagonistic nature in that formal control may undermine social processes, hamper the formation of trust, or even breed a situation of mistrust that instead increases opportunism (Dyer & Singh, 1998; Gulati, 1995).
In their subsequent research, Love and Roper (2001) find that the internal and external R&D are substitutes in the UK and Ireland, but in Germany a clear substitutive
or complementary relationship can not be determined when innovation output is measured by the new products sales rate.
First, the lack of operational capability in the G8 framework precludes it from playing substitutive
or competing roles against operational peacekeepers in any meaningful manner.
To describe the self-care activities done by the patients who suffer chronic kidney disease (CKD) that are currently receiving different substitutive
treatments, reported in scientific literature between 2006 and 2013.
The adsorption process in recent years provides an attractive substitutive
treatment of contaminated waters, particularly if the adsorbent is low-cost and indigenously available.
We wanted to determine whether such substitutive
properties, which are helpful in other replacement therapies such as using nicotine gum instead of smoking cigarettes or methadone instead of heroin, would play a role in enhancing brain connectivity between regions of potential importance for intervention in cocaine addiction.
Ordinarily, this all happens rather transparently in society, but occasionally the system breaks down or is dramatically threatened somehow, bringing about a "sacrificial crisis" that causes "the substitutive
logic at the heart of the scapegoat mechanism [to become] a little more visible than usual" (5).
contexts, the right to counsel has a substitutive
effect insofar as
23) Some scholars look to the absence of females due to the segregation of the genders as a possible cause for the frequency of these acts, because "an extreme separation between [the] sexes and deprivation of the feminine element leads to substitutive
While the previous arguments address the direct effects of relational and structural embeddedness, we suspect that these two dimensions may also have a substitutive
effect on the cost of resources.