Such reports fuel the argument that spyware legislation
Software programs that include spyware may be sold or available for
One example of spyware is software products that include, as part
In the spyware context, those with greater self-efficacy are more likely to protect themselves against spyware.
Hu and Dinev (2005) used an adapted version of Azjen's (1988, 2002) Theory of Planned Behavior' to study behaviors of Internet users with respect to spyware. According to their study, users that encounter spyware are very likely to take steps to protect themselves.
Such programs represent a technical defense measure as these measures require the explicit installation of software packages that are specifically designed to prevent spyware and adware infections.
(76) However, Magic Lantern also fits the "spyware" aspect of "fedware" because it is delivered secretly or deceptively to the suspect and runs on the suspect's computer.
While the CIPAV technology used in the investigation remains classified, (93) commentators have categorized CIPAV as "spyware." (94) Perhaps the greatest advantage of this program is its surreptitious remote installation feature; the affidavit indicates CIPAV was "deployed through an electronic messaging program from an account controlled by the FBI." (95) This wording might indicate that CIPAV was delivered to the target computer through an e-mail message, (96) through MySpace's instant messaging system, or another web-based messaging system, (97) but it could also have been delivered through some other computer vulnerability.
Commercial and other forms of spyware also use these methods, which bolsters CIPAV's classification as spyware.
Software Enabled Installation of Spyware via Shareware
and Levy H (2005), researchers from University of Washington Dep't of Computer Science, point out software-enabled spyware installs itself by way of attaching itself to shareware software, such as Kazaa (http://www.kazaa.com) to which spyware code has been attached to several hundred million machines.
The majority of software-enabled spyware programs fall within the "piggy-backed spyware" installation method.
Generally, malicious spyware tends to be financially motivated,
spyware via shareware applications; and (2) Web-enabled installation
spyware's delivery and installation mechanisms can be categorized