The main flow field configurations were similar for the pure spiked blunt bodies and spiked blunt bodies with sideward jets, including the separation shock, the conical shock, the reattached shock, the shear layer, and the circumfluence.
In this paper, 36 combinations of the incoming flow Mach numbers and the spike lengths for pure spiked bodies were taken into account so did the 36 combinations of the spiked bodies with sonic sideward jets.
The drag coefficients of the pure spiked blunt bodies with 6 different spike lengths L/D flying at 6 different Mach numbers are shown in Figure 18(a), where L/D denotes the horizontal coordinate axis.
Bushnell pointed out that the effective load can be increased by 5-10% if the aerodynamic drag got discounted by as much as 1%, which is likely why so many studies have been conducted regarding spiked blunt bodies .
The drag coefficients of the spiked blunt bodies flying at hypersonic speed with sonic sideward jets near the spike nose are shown in Figure 18(b).
The interactions between the conical shock and the reattached shock in all cases, including the pure spiked bodies and the spiked bodies with sideward jets, were similar to type V or type VI interaction determined by different combinations of the spike length and the Mach number, as shown in Figures 3-14.
The drag coefficients in the 72 cases of the pure spiked bodies and the spiked bodies with sonic sideward jets were plotted together, as shown in Figure 19.
The 72 flow field reconfiguration cases were numerically investigated in this paper, including 36 pure spiked blunt bodies and 36 spiked bodies with sideward jets.
Bogdonoff, "Preliminary investigations of spiked bodies at hypersonic speeds," Journal of the Aerospace Sciences, vol.
Maull, "Hypersonic flow over axially symmetric spiked bodies," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.
Wood, "Hypersonic flow over spiked cones," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol.
Nontoxic shellfish extracts and homogenates spiked with brevetoxins showed identical ELISA responses to buffer spiked with the same amount of brevetoxins (Figure 4).
To define the best strategy for brevetoxin monitoring in shellfish, we spiked oyster meat with brevetoxins before extraction by ethyl ether or acetone or simply homogenization in buffer.
Therefore, the complex matrix samples were spiked with a mixture of PbTx-2, PbTx-3, and PbTx-9 in the ratio found in cultured K.