Freud used his work as a psychoanalyst to study these slips of the tongues or parapraxes or Freudian slips, as they were later called.
6 Shortly speaking, slips of the tongues are a mode of self-betrayal; hence their full comic effect of a joke.
Another aspect that Freud underlined in his analysis of slips of the tongues is that particular symptoms of paraphasia in aphasic patients do not differ much from the incorrect use and distortion of words that healthy people produce in the form of slips of the tongue.
Many authors and researchers have found great pleasure in collecting slips of the tongues produced by radio or TV broadcasters.
Having presented the two perspective of analyzing slips of the tongues as spoonerisms, seen as speech errors caused by a disfunction in the mechanisms of the articulatory process and as parapraxes or Freudian slips, seen as outward manifestations of repressed sub-conscious thoughts, we cannot but validate their linguistic and psycho-analytical readings and integrate them in a unified angle.
The very fact that slips of the tongues have two synonymous terms, namely spoonerisms and parapraxes indicate two different hyposthases of the level where the disruption takes places.
The examples are extracted from a selection of slips of the tongues collected by Meringer and Meyer and Freud, in Anthony Giddens, The Constitution of Society, first published in the United States, by the University of California Press, 1984, p.
Linguistically speaking, slips of the tongue are considered linguistic errors, also known as spoonerisms.
4 The result of a thorough linguistic analysis of the most important mechanisms that trigger the production of slips of the tongue or spoonerisms consists of a long list of linguistic observations.
In the fifth chapter of his book, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, dedicated to Slips of the tongue, Freud made reference to Meringer's theory, which he considered partially correct, as speech disturbances could be the result of a mechanism of articulation that made sounds and words within the same context (sentence) mutually influence their articulation.