Because a LTC in Major League Baseball guarantees a player a specific salary regardless of his performance, one might expect the usual disincentive effect on effort that dominates the existing shirking
Wage [??] makes workers just indifferent between working and shirking
. Any wage higher than [??] ensures that given the current unemployment rate and the parameters of the model, costs of shirking
outweigh its benefits.
Ahlstrom, Si, and Kennelly, who found statistically significant evidence for shirking
, did not observe the same for contract-year performance.
The survey estimated that employers spend $759 billion per year for the time their workers are "spacing out" (3.9 percent of the shirking
) conducting personal business (6.8 percent of the shirking
), "applying for other jobs" (1.3 percent of the shirking
), or surfing the Internet or socializing with other workers.
(2002), the authors attempted to isolate shirking
behavior in MLB by looking at whether a player's deviation from expected performance was affected by proximity to a free agent contract.
version of the efficiency wage approach is one of the most popular explanations of unemployment proposed by New Keynesian Economics.
The result is that a sizable fraction of incumbents are well matched to their constituencies, so shirking
is not an option.
Lowe of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis and her colleagues offered a clue to why aged muscle is weaker: In older muscle, a key protein, myosin, is shirking
In particular, it is more difficult (costly) to detect shirking
in larger firms, ceteris paribus.4 The notion that a trade-off exists between wages paid and supervisory intensity has been examined in several papers.
Here, in the case of perfect verifiability, the offer is accepted even when the production value is low because shirking
is detected with probability one and can be proven in court.
We must record our thanks for Laszlo Goerke for correcting such an unfortunate error in our paper on 'Trade Unions, Efficiency Wages, and Shirking
' (Bulkley and Myles, 1996).
Once w-h tenancy is chosen, "second-stage" production decisions such as shirking
and monitoring arise.
If Americans are shirking
their responsibilities toward jury service, they aren't doing it by not showing up.
That's all part of the shirking
. People are afraid to name the problem lest they incur responsibility to do something about it.
But Lacson's staff said the hearing which the senator headed was adjourned not because the Senate was 'shirking
its responsibility,' but because none of his colleagues objected when a motion to adjourn was made.