Chia-Feng Chen, RN, Chih-Lu Han, PhD, Chiou-Ping Kan, RN, Shyi-Gen Chen, MD, Ping Wei Hung (2012) Effect of surgical site infections with waterless and traditional hand scrubbing
protocols on bacterial growth AJIC: American Journal of Infection Control Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages e15-e17, May 2012.
This is determined by measuring the test panel before and after the scrubbing test.
Accelerated test methods for the washability and the resistance to cleaning of paints are described in standard test methods BS EN ISO 11998, ASTM D2486 and others, and these tests make use of a reciprocal scrubbing motion, as provided by a Washability Tester.
The method for scrubbing the paint surface differs depending on the standard and therefore a range of scrubbing tools is required to meet all of the standards used.
2% ethylhexadecyldimethyl ammonium ethylsulfate (Sterillium) was found to be more effective than scrubbing using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate in reducing colony forming units on participants hands immediately after antisepsis and at the end of the surgical procedure.
This is important to point out as the AfPP (2007) guidelines state that alcohol rubs are an acceptable alternative to scrubbing for repeated washings only.
Chlorhexidine was significantly more effective than povidone iodine in reducing the number of colony forming units immediately after scrubbing, two hours after the initial scrub and two hours after the subsequent scrub.