Here's a nifty trick for securing small pieces while you rout
Layer biasing utilizes the principle that escape routes
on a horizontally biased layer will be horizontal and escapes on a vertically biased layer will be vertical--as shown in FIGURE 2.
To find a route, it uses cache technology to preserve the information of all nodes routes
However, they cannot be used as a proactive per-hop routing, where routes
are periodically and simultaneously calculated for all traffic flows in the network.
FRESH protocol was proposed in order to optimize the procedure of discovering optimal routes
from source to destination via omni-directional approaches.
Reactive protocols do not keep routing information updated, and they find routes
only when an origin node needs to transmit data packets to a destination node [12, 13].
In Reactive or On-Demand  Routing Protocols, routes
are not predefined and packet transmission for source node calls for route discovery to determine the route.
In order to keep routes
by means of very less overhead and converges quickly routing protocols should be adaptive, flexible and reactive.
The path establishment mechanism is responsible for identifying or discovering routes
from a source to the intended receiver.
There are u accessible routes
from node j to node d.
The next hop field is an advisory field which is used to eliminate extra hops in the packet being routed
. If a packet routing is done by the originator of advertisement or received next hop is not directly reachable, then hop IP address is represented as 0.0.0.0.
The results show that the ETX metric which has been extensively used in mesh networks around the world is fundamentally flawed when estimating optimal routes
in real mesh networks.
The number of intermediate nodes depends on the routing protocol, which establishes efficient and connected end-to-end communication routes
between source and destination .
Thus, connections between direct and dual gates, which are placed in seperate domains, cannot be routed
In our experience, a manually routed
board is more likely than an autorouted board to become a working prototype.