Now that the ground of epistemic violence and the articulation of a retaliative response to it have been discussed I will focus on the final stage of the process, that is, the accomplishment of epistemic retaliation.
Analogously, Birju incarnates a retaliative narrative, handed down orally from Chandra, and concerned with the destruction of the text-man who has abused his authority.
This is the outcome of what I have labelled retaliative cooperation-defection (Model 4) and Strathern (1971:11) called 'alternating disequilibrium'.
But, again, this extreme reading of gift exchange would alter Model 2 such that there was no basis other than spite for an actor not to cooperate with an exchange partner and, with repeated transactions and retaliative spite, there would be no relative gain to a non-cooperative actor.
Effect of power to harm on retaliative
aggression among males and females.
Byron's death, but also urged, I suspect, by the two debilitating, emaciating bouts with "fever" he himself had suffered while abroad.(13) The appearance of the new poem would represent Byron's first venture into print since the publication of English Bards and Scotch Reviewers shortly before his 1809 departure - a parting (scatter)shot, if ever author took one, against just about every "scribbler" of his day.(14) For three and a half months, with embarkation ever "eminent" in a typically extended Byronic leave-taking, the poet relished the commotion wrought by his retaliative
satire, not to mention its brisk sales, and even the notoriety it conferred, for anonymous publication had not concealed authorial identity.
Shame seemed to provoke irrational retaliative
anger as well as externalization of blame, a defense used to guard against feelings of shame (Tangney, 1995; Tangney et al., 1999; Tangney, Wagner, Barlow, Marschall, & Gramzow, 1996).
action."(35) Likewise, commentators generally agree that the presumption was designed to promote international comity(36) and to avoid judicial involvement in potential international conflicts.(37)
This 'linguistic turn' in cultural poetics and post-colonial politics lies at the heart of Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin's survey of the retaliative
discourse through which 'the Empire writes back to the Centre' (Salman Rushdie's words).