Although one can expect that these subskills are all important for L2 reading as
well as L1 reading, L2 reading should be fundamentally different from L1 reading since one cannot ignore readers' L1 knowledge and their prior experience of reading in their L1 (Koda, 2005).
"At the current rate of loss," the endowment study says, "literary reading as
a leisure activity will virtually disappear in half a century."
Other left-brain areas concerned with recognizing words and discerning speech sounds also displayed greater activity during word reading as
age and reading skill increased.
Sharpe's enthusiasm for critical theory centers in its "concern with the reading and consumption of texts" (34), in particular, he regards a history of reading as
"central to understanding the 'master narratives' of society and politics" (39).
Guigo does not think of this reading as
a way of gaining information or preparing to study for an exam or searching out proof texts for theological argument.
Noting a slowing in the reading rates of many of her students who seem to regard the activity of reading as
a form of avoidable work, she suggests one consequence is that "the student's own critical ability is being significantly under-used or by-passed by the pre-selection of the `most relevant' highly subjective secondary source material by the lecturer himself" (Kingston, 1986, p.
The school's students had been dutifully reading as
much as they could all year long--2,400 pages or more for the older ones and 80-plus books for the younger set.
In his 1986 book What's Whole in Whole Language: A Parent-Teacher Guide (Heinemann), Goodman describes miscue research and his notion of reading as
a "psycholinguistic guessing game" in which the reader constructs meaning based on prior expectations and cultural background.
In other words, rather than teaching reading as
a single cognitive operation that can be applied universally to poetry, newspapers, novels and test passages alike, teaching standardized test passages as a separate genre, in the same manner we would teach poetry different from expository texts may help readers be more successful in both contexts (Santman, 2002).
Reading begets more reading as
it helps the learner work through context, negotiate meaning, and build higher levels of understanding (Krashen, 1993).
Guided Independent Reading: An Examination of the Reading Practice Database and the Scientific Research Supporting Guided Independent Reading As
Implemented in Reading Renaissance.
"English is usually in 45-minute periods," she says, "but the data say that students need two hours of reading a
day to maintain grade level." Calkins advocates 90-minute language arts periods where students read at least 30 minutes in class, followed by explicit instruction on reading skills such as looking for clues about what will happen next in a story, or making connections between the setting of a novel and how it affects the characters.
These can be a valuable resource for teachers to use in selecting new words to introduce to pupils prior to reading a
From the students in the negative reaction category who shifted to a less favorable response to reading a
book, we heard these comments and many like them:
When readers have a sufficient level of vocabulary knowledge, reading a
particular text becomes an opportunity for increased vocabulary acquisition, as the individual is able to use contextual vocabulary and textual information to infer the meaning of unfamiliar words.