He said: "God does not punish for
no reason but collectively punishes.
The courts demand that the state demonstrate that the action ordered is intended to prevent harm in the future, not to punish for
past actions, and that the action is reasonably related to the public health objective.
Inflicting a penalty merely to deter -- rather than to punish for
deeds done -- is the very definition of cruelty.
In a 5 - 4 decision authored by Justice Stephen Breyer, the Court held that it is unconstitutional for a jury to award punitive damages to punish for
harm to individuals who are not before the Court - as it was invited to do so in the Williams trial - and that such an award would amount to a taking of property without due process.