During the Second World War, one of the first steps toward the establishment of the propaganda and psychological warfare
network was the creation of the Committee for National Morale in July 1940.
In February 1944, McClure, under General Dwight Eisenhower's command, established the Psychological Warfare
Division, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Forces (PWD/SHAEF), for the invasion of France and prosecution of the war in mainland Europe.
Under the guidance of a president who believed firmly in the importance of psychological warfare
, the Eisenhower administration adopted an approach that was far more sophisticated than its predecessors' and Osgood amply shows that propaganda assumed genuine importance in Eisenhower's strategy for fighting the Cold War.
"I think there is an element of psychological warfare
about the choice of pitch, because several of their other qualifiers have been played on grass.
Eighteen such psychological warfare
operations from 1605 to modern times are described, along with close inspections of the 'blackout' of key questions the traditional and alternative media alike have failed to address.
Other documents obtained by the paper describe the "Zarqawi PSY-OP"--the latter a term for psychological warfare
operations--as "the most successful information campaign to date." Among those targeted by that PSY-OP, according to the Pentagon, was the "home audience" in the United States.
After joining the CIA in 1951, he later became chief of the Psychological Warfare
branch of the CIA's station in Miami.
When the war broke out, he found himself working on government projects, most notably for the Psychological Warfare
Branch, which sent him to North Africa in 1943 and then to Italy.
There was the tiresome 'psychological warfare
' between our top managers which the tabloids so gleefully whip up, and there was the constant bickering about referees' decisions - which more often than not were either proved right, or balanced u p next time out anyway.
Still, it sounds more like a fraternity prank than a serious contribution to psychological warfare
. Indeed one can only imagine, had the military succeeded in concocting this stuff, that sooner or later some hotdog would have gotten hold of a canisterful and released it in his barracks.
And one can imagine a disaffected spouse waging psychological warfare
to push the other to file for divorce, or making false allegations of physical abuse or other "faults."
``It's something manufactured by the press, that no matter what you say, it's construed as psychological warfare
- as they call it - against your opponents; it's absolute nonsense.
The United States Special Operations Command (SOCOM) was assigned the responsibility of "providing trained and combat-ready special operations forces to the combatant commander and when directed by the President or Secretary of Defense for exercising command of selected special operations missions." Special operations forces were assigned missions of unconventional warfare, direct action, strategic reconnaissance, foreign internal defense, civilian affairs, psychological warfare
, counterterrorism, humanitarian assistance, and theater search and rescue.
Later, Israel introduced psychological warfare
through 24-hour noise harassment.
Even aspects of the Pentagon briefings can be part of the psychological warfare
. At one session, officials showed night-vision video of an Army Ranger raid in Afghanistan, in part to reinforce the message to the Taliban and bin Laden's terrorist organization, Al Qaeda, that the U.S.