Unlike an act utilitarian society, promising and trusting in promises makes sense in a rule utilitarian society, because promisees can rest assured that promisers
: Says the opposite of what he means, claiming the child will have fun and will not get hurt.
's utterance, Grundy says, adding a requirement to the requirements represented in the Parker-Riley diagram, must affirm
Insincere behavior of this sort "can scarcely in any instance take place, without fixing a stain upon the promiser
" (PJ 1.210).
If the promiser
never intended to perform, failure to perform tells the truth about his intention."(31) Civil law solved the dilemma of evaluating intent by judging actions rather than intention, and oath making, whether in wager of law or another form, established a criterion for judging intent.
A friend or associate can counsel us on selecting a promiser
or recommend us to trusters.
commanding or promising) do not necessarily involve words at all, or, more significantly for Wolterstorff's investigation, may involve words uttered or written by someone other than the commander or promiser
. Performance of an illocutionary act through the medium of another's words may take the form of deputation (when someone else is authorized to speak in his or her own words on one's behalf) or of appropriation (when one accepts another's speech as one's own by indicating full agreement with and endorsement of it).
Think of the duty of Sartre's student to join the Free Forces, or of Ross's promiser
's duty to help the injured person.
In stipulatio, "the substance of the answer had to correspond to the question and the verb used in reply had to be the same as that of the question." The prime guarantor of such a contract was the fides of the promiser
In cases of marriage settlements, for example, promises may be enforced even in the absence of actual inducement because of the possibility, foreseen by the promiser
, that the promisee might change her behavior in reliance on the promise.(345) Alternatively, promises made in the marriage context may be regarded as inherently serious because they involve what is traditionally viewed as a very important part of personhood.(346)
So the next time there's that knock at the door in the run-up to the elections tell whichever Earth promiser
that it's not Lords reform or boundary changes we're crying out for, it's someone to go down the shops and get 20 Rothmans and some egg foo yung.