It can be seen from the table that there was a pronounced decrease in average maximum strain of the laminated crossarms as the number of utility pole plies
in the crossarms increased, while average MOR of the four composition crossarm groups fluctuated mildly at about 65 MPa.
Steiner obtained encouraging results with an intermediate approach, whereby thermoplastic PEEK and polyethersulfone (PES) particles were dispersed in thermoset cyanate ester resin mainly in the interlaminar region between prepreg plies
. This was accomplished by using large enough thermoplastic resin particles (11 microns) to be trapped in the outer regions of the prepreg by the carbon-fiber fabric.
To cope with these stresses, more tires will be equipped with cap plies
, and greater performance will be demanded from those cap plies
* Body or carcass plies
- rubber coated polyester, nylon, rayon, aramid or steel cords.
Special features of PEN make it desirable as a tire reinforcement in high performance passenger tire carcass, truck carcass and passenger tire cap plies
Diffusion of oxygen through the innerliner and other plies
supports oxidative reactions in the body of the tire (ref 1) gradually degrading the material properties of the internal components.
Typical of preassembly tasks are assembly of tire body or carcass plies
, breaker plies
, application of apex (a filler which fairs the body plies
to the bead), application of flipper stock (a reinforcement tying the bead to the tire body plies
) and application of bead cover stock (either gum or rubberized fabric) to the bead.
This is because it is important to get good flow of the compound (to get good ply-to-ply adhesion and bonding to the metal core) and to allow any entrapped air within or between plies
to dissolve or escape to the surface of the roll before curing takes place.
Not only are the angles (P, y) that the steel cords in the second and third belt plies
(8,9) form with the circumferential direction (A-A) approximately equal, but also the angles (a, 6) that the steel cords in the first and fourth belt plies
(7, 10) form with the circumferential direction (A-A) are likewise approximately equal.
Not only must we determine the design variables that influence the properties of a metallic tube (such as the inner diameter and wall thickness), but we must also determine some typical design variables for laminated composites, such as the ply orientations and number of plies
. Intelligent optimization algorithms, especially evolutionary algorithms, are widely used for the optimization of composite laminated tube designs.
Hanks, West and McMinn developed a fiber-reinforced resin composite for ballistic protection consisting of multiple plies
of a woven fabric and resin.
Manual operations can for example be found in material handling, when picking prepreg plies
from a cutter table and stacking them to form a plane laminate in preparation for a subsequent forming operation.
In many existing AFP cells manual inspection of composite plies
accounts for a large percentage of production time.
MilliCap Reinforcement Tape technology can produce an extruded nylon tape with two times the modulus of current cap plies
. The higher modulus, coupled with the sub-millimeter rubber cement coating, provides three key benefits: decreased cap ply usage, improved tire performance and reduced manufacturing steps.