constraints should be phonetically grounded in some property of articulation or perception.
This hierarchy, in which faithfulness >> markedness
, has been fundamental to demonstrate that those forms that carry the lateral consonant, both in coda and onset positions, are optimal.
She adds that because markedness
in language originates from speech communities outside of the classroom, primary efforts for change must be made in those communities where it is rooted in.
However, asymmetries in goal and benefactive verbs (also reported by Oh (2010)) indicate that higher accuracy in PPCs could not be explained by markedness
and topic continuity in discourse processing.
As already mentioned, Croft's model is centred around the notion of morpho-syntactic markedness
In Antonio Bertacca's "The Language of Charles Darwin's Red Notebook" (8399) linguistic markedness
, or rather 'markedness
reversal', owes to the 'self-oriented', 'intrapersonal' character of the notebook, in which "full expression would have been unsuitable" (p.
Among the topics are sonority and sonority-based relationships within American English monosyllabic words, whether the sonority sequencing principle is an epiphenomenon, sonority variation in stochastic optimality theory and its implications for markedness
hierarchies, sonority and the larynx, the sonority dispersion principle in the acquisition of Hebrew word final codas, and acceleration peaks and sonority in Finnish sign language syllables.
The experience of "humor" as a cooperative construction between the narrator/sender and the receiver/reader based on pragmatic presuppositions, implicatures, cognitive informativeness, and markedness
underlies Ermida's hybrid model entitled "Hypothesis.
But here it begins to get the fuller comparative and deeper regional treatment it deserves from seasoned field researchers with strong ethnographic and linguistic understanding of the pragmatics of markedness
Building on Blom and Gumperz's (1972) notion of ' situational' code-switching, two models have developed which focus on the setting of interactions and socio-psychological features that pertain to it: Giles's Speech Accommodation Theory (Giles, Bourhis & Taylor 1977), later known as Communication Accommodation Theory (Giles, Coupland & Coupland 1991) and Myers-Scotton's Markedness
Model (1993), later extended as the Rational Choice Model (2001).
accounts for the differences between these.
Cintron (1997) studied code- switching in Nuyorican and Chicano poetry from the perspective of Myers-Scotton's markedness
model in an attempt to connect poetics, stylistics, and linguistics.
Davison, Alice (1984), "Syntactic markedness
and the definition of sentence topic", en Language, vol.
One of the more complete theories of code switching within sociolinguistics is the Markedness
Model, developed by Carol Myers- Scotten (1993).