146) which Ponterotto invokes as response to the hegemonic male gaze
is, I suggest, less so.
This disrupts the controlling male gaze
and replaces it with questions, prefiguring the uncertainty built into this film's form.
The usage of the word "he" to denote the subject in the previous passage is thus significant in that self-objectification, particularly for people who don't identify as heterosexual men, often stems from the patriarchal male gaze
. The subject is made to feel as though they are possessed in some way by the other person, as though their access to their perception of themselves is limited.
As a self-portrait of a woman, The Rebel reiterates with a difference the male gaze
, something Susan Butler confirms.
most straightforward, the concept of the male gaze
refers to the ways in
These concerns are also of central interest to feminists who, since the time of Mary Wollstonecraft, have engaged with the problem of women as objects of the male gaze
. (3) As is often pointed out, John Berger (1972, 47) made the important claim that woman in culture is "to be looked at":
The editors (both of the Gender Institute, London School of Economics, England) do not explain the specific criteria they used in selecting particular concepts for inclusion, but clearly due to the limitations of space they have selected very broad topics, such as class, cultural difference, disability, feminist economics, feminist politics, gender and development, gender-based violence, heteronormativity, interdisciplinarity, the male gaze
, new reproductive technologies, performativity, postcolonialism, the sexual division of labor, and subjectivity, to name a few.
A feminist/critical perspective permeates this work and is reflected in the entries on noted feminist theorists/activists (e.g., Susan Bordo, bell hooks, Jean Kilbourne, Gloria Steinem, Kathleen Hanna) and various concepts, theories, and media critique perspectives (e.g., for "male gaze
," there are seven entries on different feminist theoretical perspectives, and multiple entries on beauty and body image and gender and femininity).
Iskin's work is focused in part on the role of "modern women" in consumer culture and impressionism, and ber investigation offers a nuanced perspective of late nineteenth-century representations of femininity by displacing the binaristic structure of "male gaze
" upon female object.
Like Princesses, the multimedia drawings, paintings, and prints address ideals of femininity, the majori- ty of which are sewn images of women posing pornographically for a presumed male gaze
. Amer often repeats these women serially in a grid-like format, recalling Andy Warhol's screen prints of mass media icons.
The male gaze
is thus rendered benign, and men are cast as an accessory in proving a girl's worth to the most important people in her life--her circle of friends.
The imperial gaze reflects the assumption that the white western subject is central much as the male gaze
assumes the centrality of the male subject.
The camera acts as a male gaze
in traditional film narrative, and therefore, some females might not enjoy this voyeurism of the female body.