The amounts of maternal PAPP-A (PAPP-A is not measurable in cord blood) significantly increased along the pregnancy as in controls and in GDM (second versus first trimester, p < 0.001; at delivery versus first trimester, p < 0.001) with a similar ascending trend in the two settings (p = 0.67) (Figure 4(a)).
The ratio between the sHLA-G median value of the mothers and that of their babies was 1.78 in controls and 0.85 in GDM.
Analyzing the distribution of HLA-G and PAPP-A genotypes in GDM and healthy mothers and the corresponding children, we found that HLA-G 14 bp del/del genotype was slightly more frequent in GDM mothers (OR =1.7) and babies born to GDM mothers (OR = 2.1) than in controls (healthy mothers and babies born to healthy mothers).
The ratio between the median sHLA-G concentrations in mothers at delivery and neonates was 1.78 in controls, while 0.85 in GDM.
Caption: Figure 2: Maternal soluble HLA-G concentrations (ng/mL) in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and at delivery in controls and GDM (a).
Caption: Figure 4: Maternal PAPP-A serum concentrations (mU/L) in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and at delivery in controls and GDM (a).