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(20) True, First Solution only purports to offer a sufficient condition for harming some to save others, and so these cases are not, strictly speaking, counterexamples to it.
Thus, HPP declares harming permissible in each of these cases.
Thus, HPP declares harming impermissible in each of these cases.
Yet, as I also noted earlier, if a person is morally liable to be harmed in a certain way, harming him in that way does not count toward making the act that harms him disproportionate.
The degree to which a person is liable to defensive action, and thus how much harm it can be proportionate to inflict on him, depends on various factors, such as the magnitude of the threat he poses, the degree to which he is morally responsible for that threat, whether the threat can be eliminated or diminished (and if so, by how much) by harming him, and so on.
But while this form of justification for harming innocent people does have significant application in the in bello context--it is, for example, the only justification for harming innocent people as a side effect of military action--its application in ad bellum contexts is highly restricted precisely because the wide proportionality constraint is so demanding, particularly when what must be justified is the intentional killing of people who are not liable to be killed.
Getting revenge on my house, for its many, many faults, remains metaphorical, even if I have come to believe that my house is harming me on purpose.
In particular, I have contrasted it with deterrence, as in the tit-for-tat strategy, and with other kinds of harming to improve one's ends.
'But the self-harming had increased to the point where I was harming my legs, stomach and chest.
'Over the next 10 years or so I will only be harming occasionally.
Chair of the inquiry, Catherine McLoughlin CBE, says: "Too many young people are harming themselves in silence.
Experts say as many as one in 10 teenagers could be harming themselves but most will do it in secret so it's hard to tell what the real numbers are.
Annually, an estimated 25,000 adolescents attend hospital for treatment after harming themselves.
The figure is reasonably low because cutting is often the preferred form of harming and invariably does not require hospital treatment, say the researchers.