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Eight critical themes emerged in these interviews: (1) father absence, (2) father-child co-residency, (3) father-mother relationship, (4) father-child involvement, (5) fathers in the breadwinner role, (6) a father as a moral leader and disciplinarian, (7) the gendered nature of fathering, and (8) the role of social fathers.
Information on childhood experiences with their own fathers and women's expectations and men's experiences of fathering were analysed in pairs (the focal child's primary caregiver and father-figure).
Data on women's expectations of fathering from four female primary caregivers (three focal children's mothers and one grandmother) who were not matched with the focal children's father-figures because the men were not interviewed were also analysed.
Childhood Father Absence and Adult Experiences and Expectations of Fathering
In this regard, most female participants also agreed that this gendered nature of fathering has shifted, and more men spend time with their children regardless of the child's gender.
For the more global attitudinal indicators, the overall lack of differences between those with very involved coresidential fathers and those with other types of fathers and other levels of involvement could be interpreted as consistent with the compensatory hypothesis, though it could also be interpreted that men's own fathering experiences simply do not influence these attitudes.
As such, the estimates here may overestimate the positive aspects of new father's attitudes toward fathering. Further, the data available to study included somewhat limited measures that could be used to operationalize fathers' attitudes or address the broader research question.
While most men base their ideas about fathering on their experiences with their own fathers, some may have social fathers or father-figures which stand in contrast to an uninvolved biological father and provide important alternative role models.
This research contributes to the process of understanding the influences on men's fathering behaviors, but there is relatively little evidence linking fathers' attitudes directly to father involvement--how do men's attitudes impact their actual behaviors?
We are all responsible for responsible fathering: A response to Walker and McGraw.
These males often provide most, if not all, the primary fathering that many offspring experience.
While most sample participants had limited knowledge of their parents' paternal relationships and/or limited experience with other fathering persons in their lives, we believe these areas are important dimensions of the individual's sense of father.
In addition, the presence of father figures or other fathering persons in an individual's life may moderate the loss of father when the biological parent is absent or emotionally unavailable.
Do marriage problems affect fathering more than mothering?
Involved fathering and men's adult development: Provisional balances.