Male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were exposed to undiluted wastewater effluent for one, two or three weeks.
Recent reports in the United States have shown less conclusive evidence for estrogenic responses from fathead minnows and goldfish exposed to wastewater effluent constituents (Giesy et al.
Male fathead minnow responses were an order of magnitude greater in wastewater effluent in this study than in the study performed in Michigan and well within the range of responses found in Europe.
Effects of 4-nonylphenol on fecundity and biomarkers of estrogenicity in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).
Effects of municipal wastewater exposure in situ on the reproductive physiology of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).
Of course, according to fathead
social workers in Cambridgeshire, it's just a different style of parenting" to let your kids see you frothing at the mouth from a heroin overdose.
Sir Evelyn, the archetypal chinless wonder in Anything Goes, is a very precious stage fathead. He belongs to the breed that burbles What-what-what and we can't help laughing at it.
Everybody, that is, except a prize fathead who habitually does not have a naughty bone in his body.
And whereas the one from which I quoted deemed it necessary to tell us that no fewer than six shows were "the Musical", one I was looking at more recently had no truck with the fatheaded labelling that I had found attached to Chicago, Bad Girls, Footloose, Fame and Billy Elliot.
Effects of waterborne exposure of 17[beta]-estradiol on secondary sex characteristics and gonads of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).
Adverse reproductive effects in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of the natural oestrogens, oestradiol and oestrone.
Several researchers (Markus, 1934; Unger, 1983; Flickinger, 1973) noted high postspawning mortality of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas.
The objective of our research was to determine if a single spawning event was stressful enough to influence the physiological well-being of fathead minnows.
Fathead minnows were obtained from a culture kept at the University of North Texas.
Mean CTMax of control (nonspawn) fathead females and males equalled 36.9[degrees] and 36.2[degrees]C respectively (Table 1).