For example, fathead
minnows exposed to a variety of cadmium concentrations over time, exhibited not only a decrease in mean CTMax, but also an increase in variance at higher doses or longer exposures (Carrier and Beitinger, 1988).
A stock of fathead
minnows was obtained from Osage Catfisheries (Osage Beach, MO, USA).
For our studies we employed the fathead
minnow as a model cyprinid species.
In fact one of the chief fatheads
, Simon Fisher, who produced a report on this particular junkie mum, reckons the experience helped her child mature.
carp (Gimeno and Komen 1996) and fathead
minnow (van Aerie et al.
He also found that the heads of these fathead
minnows weren't all that fat--which also makes sense, he notes, since testosterone helps determine skull size.
In the module, students observe fathead
minnows in the classroom to learn and characterize their normal reproductive behavior.
Panter of AstraZeneca in Brixham, England, and her colleagues exposed male fathead
minnows (Pimephales promelas) to up to 120 parts per trillion (ppt) estrogen in water for 3 or 6 weeks.
discovered an error in their article, "Endocrine-Disrupting Effects of Cattle Feedlot Effluent on an Aquatic Sentinel Species, the Fathead
Minnow" [Environ Health Perspect 112:353-358 (2004)].