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deus ex machina

1. A god in an ancient Greek or Roman play that suddenly appears in the storyline in order to solve a problem or decide an outcome. The Latin phrase translates to "god from a machine," referring to the machinery that lowered it onto the stage. The ancient Greek play makes use of a deus ex machina in which Apollo arrives on stage to restore order among the other characters.
2. An ending in a performance or story that seems too contrived to be believable to the audience. Modern critics often pan 1980s-era television shows for the typical deus ex machina that writers often used to neatly wrap up episodes.
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ex cathedra

With the authority that comes with one's position. This phrase is often used in reference to infallible papal decrees. It is Latin for "from the chair," and can be used as both an adjective and an adverb. This is an ex cathedra statement from the pope, and the Catholic church must to abide by it. The CEO was speaking ex cathedra when he made this announcement, so we need to change our approach immediately.
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ex gratia

A payment made as a kind gesture, not due to legal obligation. This phrase is always used before a noun. Yes, I make ex gratia payments to my ex-wife—I want our divorce to stay amicable.
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ex

(ɛks)
n. a former spouse or lover. My ex is in town, but we don’t talk much anymore.