Hypothesis 1: Centralization will be negatively associated with employees' empowerment in an organization.
Formalization can be referred to as the red tape that can serve as a restriction on the exercise of authority (Tata & Prasad, 2004), and which limits employees' decision-making discretion that is related to the self-determination dimension of empowerment.
Hypothesis 2: Formalization will be negatively associated with employees' empowerment in an organization.
Yet Asongu and De Moor (2015) and Asongu and Nwachukwu (2016a, b) note that the bulk of inclusiveness in development agenda must include women empowerment.
Therefore this study provides a background to advocate for possible policy actions that should be directed at women, especially by providing empirical evidence on how empowerment (across gender) can improve intra-household dietary intake.
Critical consciousness is a likely first step in the process of personal empowerment, as the awareness of oppression is thought to inspire sociopolitical action (Carr, 2003; Tamanas, 2010).
To achieve personal empowerment, oppressed communities must create or discover personally relevant and empowering identities (Carr, 2003; Hipolito-Delgado & Lee, 2007).
Empowerment have been referred to as "interesting fodder for academic debates" (Potterfield, 1999: 30), as "socialism, democracy gone wild, or worse yet, a form of communism" (Lawler, 1986: 9) and as "emperor's new clothes" that are talked about but are not actually present (Argyris, 1998).
Different scholars have conceptualized as well as operationalized empowerment in different ways.
8) In India, feminists sought to transform the meaning of the word empowerment to that of a woman needing to be "given self-hood and self-strength" or "to be strengthened to be herself" rather than being a "beneficiary" who needed to be "dealt out cards--welfare and money--to make her feel better.
This feminist activism contributed to the Indian government's embrace of "an induced organizational approach" to rural women's development that shifted the government's understanding of empowerment toward more of a grassroots orientation.
The origin of psychological empowerment is traceable to early works on employees' alienation and quality of work life.
The new area of worker empowerment was further energized by McGregor's (1960) Theory X and Y.
Apoyandose en el modelo de Thomas y Velthouse, Spreitzer (1995) reviso la literatura existente sobre empowerment en el ambito de la psicologia, la sociologia, el trabajo social y la educacion, encontrando apoyo para las cuatro dimensiones o cogniciones.
Las revisiones teoricas sobre el empowerment organizacional y estructural y su relacion con el desarrollo del EP en el trabajo son abundantes en la literatura (Matthews, Diaz & Cole, 2003).