In particular, the voiceless /k/ and ejective /k'/ velar phonemes are found adjacent to a variety of alveolar consonants, especially as [C.sub.2].
As has been illustrated already in [section]2.1, voiced oral stops devoice word-finally and ejective oral stops deglottalize.
Thus with underlyingly voiceless consonants /-di/ is realized as [ti] (48a), with underlyingly voiced oral consonants it is realized as [di] (48b), with underlyingly ejective consonants it is realized as [ti] or [t'i] if the host is alveolar (48c), and with nasal consonants it is realized as [di] (48d).
/-di/ assimilates voicelessness with underlyingly ejective consonants .
(10) This is possibly an areal feature of the languages found at the convergence of Ethiopia, Sudan, and South Sudan, as difficulty in distinguishing non-initial ejective and voiced stops is also attested in the neighbouring Nilo-Saharan language of Gwama (Justin Goldberg & Anne-Christie Hellenthal, personal communication).
Ejectives may even occur when the underlying phoneme is voiced (cf.
As for the most remarkable features, the ejectives and the peripheral hesitation particles, we need to realize that both of them can be found in other regions of the UK as well.
Secondly, it would be interesting to explore the extent to which ejectives and non-neutral hesitation particles are used in Orkney and beyond.
'Phonetic characteristics of ejectives - samples from Caucasian languages'.
'Ejectives in Scottish English: A social perspective'.
An example in which affricates pattern with voiceless stops, in terms of their being potentially ejective, is Nootka, as shown in (20).
Since the Nootka affricates also have the features [-cont] and [-voice], these segments are predicted to have ejective counterparts.
In others, even the secondary articulation is given up, in favour of a phonation type, that is, debuccalization of /[k.sup.w]/to result in a glottal stop, as in Takelma (Sapir 1912: 44), in which a labialized velar ejective before /xC/ becomes a glottal stop.
(8.) An anonymous reviewer points out that Hausa specialists usually regard Hausa as having a single "glottalized" series, realized as ejective or glottalized implosive according to place of articulation.
(11.) In the case of Nez Perce (706, Northern Penutian, Northern Amerindian), the information on the stop or affricate nature of the apico-alveolars, and hence on the nature of a subset of the ejective consonants, is ambiguous.