The loan approvers required an average interest rate premium of 1.48 percentage points and the disapprovers
required an average of 2.08 percentage points.
Additionally, in sharp contrast to the reasons cited by disapprovers
, Trump approvers give explanations that are similar to those given by Obama approvers in 2009.
Just as President Clinton scored his strongest gains among his disapprovers
, so, too, did Reagan in public support for military involvement in Lebanon and Grenada.
The vote patterns of independent approvers and disapprovers
have been stable from month to month.
Not surprisingly, the answers given to these three questions are correlated: respondents who approved of Carter's performance on one issue were likely to approve of his performance on other dimensions as well, and similarly with disapprovers
. Yet there is also a reasonable measure of variability across issues.
An analysis of the three broad categories of responses (inaction, partisan bickering, and disagreements with what Congress has done) by party affiliation shows that Democrats who disapprove of the job Congress is doing are much more likely than Republicans to cite inaction in their reasoning, even though inaction is easily the dominant reason supplied by disapprovers
of both parties.
Bush and AI Gore in this regard, winning greater proportions of both approvers and disapprovers
. This difference may reflect the fact that, unlike the two vice presidents, McCain had not been part of the current administration and in some respects actually ran against it (Jacobson 2009c, 10-11).
(18.) Among pure independents, approvers are predicted to move to leaning toward the president's party by one equation, disapprovers
are predicted to move to leaning toward the opposition party by four equations, and the remaining three equations predict no change regardless of assessments of the president.
This is due to the fact that there are few in-party member disapprovers
available for conversion to approval and, thus, few available to constitute a surge in response to some presidential activity.