4, a shows the calculated deviator
stress for three types of axle load at different depth of foundation.
Residual excess pore pressure ([DELTA][u.sub.res]) was defined as excess pore pressure value when deviator
stress was zero during each load cycle (Seed & Lee, 1966).
Taller drivers complained the driver's seat did not go far enough for decent leg room, while shorter drivers complained the seat belts cut across their necks and needed a deviator
to overcome the problem, which reduces the effectiveness of the belt.
Samples were subjected to an effective confining pressure of approximately 45 kPa, and cyclic loading having a maximum deviator
stress of 300 kPa was applied on the ballast specimens at a frequency of 20 Hz.
the introduction of new capacity) is extremely difficult to achieve and sustain as the mechanism that is required for collusion to be successful--namely the ability of each member promptly to detect cheating and to retaliate effectively against the deviator
is much less likely to be work than when coordination takes place on a short-term variable (e.g.
where [[sigma].sub.eq] is a function of the stress deviator
[S.sub.ij] that can be written as
In fact, it is one of the most radically reflexed bows Hoyt has ever made, matched only by the Deviator
from a few years back.
In cases 1b, 1d, 2b, and 2d, the proposed deviation from [[Sigma].sub.s] lowers the deviator
's payoff in period t but has no subsequent effects, so these are clearly not optimal for any [s.sub.t], [T.sup.in], [T.sup.out], and [Delta].
where [e.sup.p.sub.ij] is the plastic deviator
strain ([e.sup.p.sub.ij] = [[epsilon].sup.p.sub.ij] - [[epsilon].sup.p.sub.m][[delta].sub.ij]).
where [bar.p] = - (1/3)[bar.[sigma]] : I is the effective hydrostatic pressure; [bar.q] = [square root of ((2/3)[bar.S] : [bar.S])] is the equivalent von Mises stress; [bar.S] = [bar.[sigma]] + [bar.p]I is the deviator
of the effective stress; <x> is the Macaulay bracket, <x> = (1/2)(x + [absolute value of x]); [[bar.[sigma]].sub.max] is the maximum eigenvalue of tensor [bar.[sigma]]; [alpha] and [gamma] are the dimensionless parameters of the material; and the function [beta]([[??].sup.p.sub.c]) is given by equation (22).
For girder P1, it was noted that concrete cover at left deviator
was fragmented at failure load due to thrust force exerted from unbonded tendon.
[[bar.[beta]].sub.kl]= ([[bar.[sigma]]'.sub.kl] -[[bar.X].sub.kl]) is the relative stress where [[bar.[sigma]]'.sub.kl]denotes the deviator
of the effective stress tensor.
where [s.sub.n+1] is the deviator
stress tensor, [p.sub.n+1] is hydrostatic pressure, [eta] is a constant related to the friction angle, and c([[bar.[epsilon]].sup.p.sub.n+1]) is hardened modulus.
Consequently, the deviator
can produce higher output more cheaply and free-rides on the lower output of its competitor.