From a pure economic standpoint, we can predict that the deutsche mark
, if it still existed, would have gone up at least 20 percent or more.
"Monetary Policy under Conditions of Increasing Integration (1979--96)." In Fifty Years of the Deutsche Mark
The data used to estimate the model are short-term interest rates and inflation rates for Austria and Germany, as well as the exchange rate between the Austrian schilling and the Deutsche mark
. We use the three-month repurchase rates for Austria and Germany, which are the most representative short-term interest rates.
Let's consider this example: If a Kenyan company is concerned that the dollar will appreciate against the deutsche mark
before the payments are made, it will want to hedge against it by buying a dollar currency futures contract.
Chart 2 shows movements in one-month and twelve-month implied volatility respectively and in the krone exchange rate against the Deutsche mark
. On 1 January 1999 the Deutsche mark
was replaced by the euro.
Farewell, into oblivion, for francs, deutsche marks
, and guilders (but not pounds, drachmas, krona, or krone, unless England, Greece, Sweden, and Denmark have since adopted the euro).
That stated, the best assumption is that the euro's volatility may resemble that of the deutsche mark
, modified somewhat by the volatility of the French franc.
deficits and German surpluses became entrenched during 1958-61, Germany experienced capital inflows and upward pressure on the deutsche mark
. This pressure was unwelcome and was resisted by the German government and the Bundesbank, with the strong support of the German industrial and banking sectors.(35) In March 1961, however, the German government under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer revalued the deutsche mark
by 5 percent against the U.S.
The deutsche mark
has become the symbol of the new republic that Germans cherish the most.
In 1977, the Bundesbank allowed CBM growth to exceed the target in the face of an appreciating deutsche mark
and weak economic activity.(10) At that early time, only two years after the adoption of the targets, the Bundesbank relied on the power of its explanation that "there may be periods in which the pursuit of an `intermediate target variable' .
options: investing at the forward deutsche mark
remained somewhat active and passed through constant ups and downs during the month.
For the last two years, the dollar has been weaker than the German deutsche mark
, British pound and French franc, benefiting exporters of North American hardwoods by making our product cheaper in Europe.
In dollar terms, rents in downtown Budapest fell slightly to $33.88 PSF, but the national economic restructuring plan resulted in a 36 percent drop in the value of the Hungarian Forint against the German Deutsche Mark
, the currency to which rental rates in prime buildings are generally linked, causing sharp rent increases (for those converting Forints to DM).
A pistol-wielding, tall, black dancer (Galloway) delivers (in English) a host of evangelical statements about the privileged and the poor ("only rich girls do ballet") and about racism and riots; three men tap dance; a woman shrieks (in German) about the deutsche mark
; a man barks like a seal; and sweeping lines of dancers counterpoint a series of jazzy solos on pointe.