The wetting pattern of the undelved soil quite closely resembled that in the off-line region of the delved soil when the latter is transposed upward by ~0.1 m (Fig.
In the top 0.1 m of the B horizon, both regions of the delved soil were significantly wetter than in the undelved profile (Table 6).
Under dry conditions (Figs 5c, la and Tables 5, 7), smaller differences in wetted area (significant at P= 0.05) were found between the two delved regions and the undelved soil.
Both the on- and off-line regions of the delved soil had significantly greater wetted areas than the undelved soil: 25% and 22%, respectively, in the A1 horizon; and both 18% in the A2e horizon (Table 8).
The reduction in hydraulic conductivity between the A and B horizons at this site was less abrupt than that at sites A and B (Table 4), so less water ponded above the A-B boundary in both the delved and undelved soils here.
Although finger flow was still observed, the delved profiles (especially on the delving lines) had deeper and more uniform wetting of the Al horizon than undelved areas, which potentially could be important for more uniform crop establishment after sowing.
Nevertheless, in the A horizon the delved profiles showed significantly larger wetted areas, particularly along the delving lines, which can be crucial for plant root growth in semi-arid and Mediterranean areas (Lampurlanes et al.