For hypotheses 1-6, the Big Five traits of Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness and Extraversion; and the narrow traits of Career Decidedness
, Sense of Identity and Optimism will be negatively associated with change of academic major ([H1.sub.a] -[H6.sub.a]).
Patton and Creed (2003) conducted a study in which 376 secondary school students studying between grade 8 and 12 were investigated for levels of career maturity assessed by attitude and knowledge, work commitment, values related to work, career decidedness
associated with indecision and certainty, career decision- making, self-efficacy and self-esteem.
. A measure of career indecision as developed by Callanan and Greenhaus for a working adult population was employed.
and psychological well-being: A two-cohort longitudinal study of undergraduate students and recent graduates.
Although career decidedness
is not necessarily regarded in contemporary career counseling as a counseling goal (Krumboltz, 2009; Savickas, 2015), career indecision is often a concern of clients who seek career counseling.
Intentionality and decidedness
about actions and behaviors are a central part of maturing.
Investigations of college students have found that perception of calling is associated with positive personal and academic outcomes including higher levels of career decidedness
(Duffy & Sedlacek, 2007) and self-clarity and resilience (French & Domene, 2010).
Engagement in adolescent career preparation: Social support, personality and the development of choice decidedness
Constructs and related measures of readiness for career choice are either theoretical, such as career beliefs (Krumboltz, 1991), career thoughts (Sampson, Peterson, Lenz, Reardon, & Saunders, 1996a, 1996b), and vocational identity (Holland, Daiger, & Power, 1980), or empirical, such as career decidedness
(Jones, 1989; Osipow, Carney, Winer, Yanico, & Koschier, 1987).
Career education participation has also been associated with personal gains in career decidedness
and career maturity, decreasing career indecision and self-efficacy (Herr, Cramer & Niles, 2004).
The importance of metacognition to career development is emphasized by the research of Symes and Stewart (1999), who found a significant relationship between metacognition and vocational decidedness
; those who displayed higher levels of metacognitive activity also demonstrated higher levels of vocational decidedness
in comparison to those with lower levels of metacognition.
In one point, however, she differs from her brother, namely in her strength of character and decidedness
The face validity of the CIS is clear: It consists of four self-report questions on decidedness
and level of exploration.