In Spodoptera exigua (Hubner, 1808) (Noctuidae), Rogers and Marti (1996) observed that individuals that copulated
one or two days after emergence presented higher fecundity and fertility, but had a shorter longevity when compared to individuals that mated later.
Females that copulated
a second time after producing the third egg sac produced significantly more offspring in the fourth egg sac (Mann-Whitney-U-test, Z = -2.
Blind females copulated
in normal numbers with control males.
All birds copulated
with the model in the test cage.
Eberhard (1996) has identified 20 different ways by which cryptic female choice may occur and has defined it thus: "Sexual selection by cryptic female choice can result from a female-controlled process or structure that selectively favors paternity by conspecific males with a particular trait over that of others that lack the trait when the female has copulated
with both types" (Eberhard 1996, p.
In some cases, as many as three different males copulated
immediately before the laying of a single egg capsule [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED].
They found that male brown lemmings (Lemmus sibiricus) much prefer the odour of virgin females to that of females that have just copulated
1996) noted that Arctosa littoralis (Hentz 1844) copulated
for the shortest time, 18 seconds, while Schizocosa saltatrix (Hentz 1844) represented the opposite extreme with more than 8 hours.