through the variety of collection methods, reflexivity (intentionally revealing underlying assumptions or biases) and ongoing research of literature.
Hence, to establish "trustworthiness" of qualitative research, credibility, dependability, transferability and confirmability
need to be established.
Following these steps will assist the researcher to collect data that meets the "gold standard" of qualitative evidence: credibility, applicability and confirmability
The principal means of achieving confirmability
and dependability was by having a competent and disinterested external auditor review all interpretations of the comments reported from the interview notes to ensure that these comments were being interpreted in a way that was contextually accurate.
We created checks and balances during these processes to ensure confirmability
Transferability is crucially dependent upon credibility, dependability and confirmability
and is enhanced by triangulation (Dick 1979).
Dependability and confirmability
also add to the trustworthiness of this study and were assessed through an auditor.
relates to objectivity and is measured in quantitative content analysis by assessing inter-rater reliability.
The criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability
are essential in substantiating the integrity of qualitative data (Guba & Lincoln, 1989; Mertens, 1998).
Themes were then discussed and processed among the authors as a means of confirmability
via analytic triangulation (Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Patton).
The deepest motivation of the Bush Administration in choosing him, along with the questions of confirmability
and so on, is, in fact, that he's a judge who will reliably extend Presidential power in the war on terror.
In addition, an external Japanese researcher conducted an audit trail (Lincoln & Guba; Skrtic, 1985) to assess both confirmability
(the degree to which the assertions were grounded in the data), and dependability (the degree to which the research procedures were consistent and valid).
In order to add credence to this work, Marshall and Rossman's (1995) trustworthiness features of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability
were addressed in several ways.
The black research assistant then reviewed the analysis (repeating/enduring patterns, emergent themes and synthesis of unity) for rigor, establishing that credibility, fittingness, auditability, and confirmability
were evident (Sandelowski, 1986).
In order to establish the trustworthiness of the qualitative methodology employed in the study, the domains of credibility and confirmability
(Lincoln & Guba, 1985) were applied to the qualitative information obtained from the study.