Now, there is an obvious downside if legitimizing a coercer
's threat accompanies early engagement: it can encourage recidivism.
we assume that the coercer
approaches the sender after transmission and the sender must be able to open any message satisfactory to the coercer
(3) How is the coercee's situation affected by the coercer
Further, even in unambiguous sexual coercion situations, women who have certain characteristics (e.g., are viewed as provocative, having low respectability, intoxicated) and who are acquainted with the coercer
are attributed more blame for the sexual coercion than are women who do not have these characteristics (Anderson, 1999; Girard & Senn, 2008).
Airpower can also contribute to denial and powerbase-reduction strategies and has the ability to expand or contract the level of destruction to suit the needs of the coercer
. Because airpower is cheap, flexible, and seemingly successful, air strikes have become a standard form of intimidation for the United States.
When assessing B, "we must seek to understand how the adversary thinks and not 'mirror-image'--ascribe our own thinking, motivation, and priorities to them." (18) Usually B is not open for manipulation by the coercer
, so coercion strategies aim at altering the equation by increasing the costs (C), by increasing the probability of suffering costs [p(C)], by reducing the probability of attaining benefits [p(B)], or a combination thereof.
Virtually all of the reported cases have involved 'blackmail'-type pressure levered against the victim's personal, psychological, or emotional interests--for example, threats to reveal to a third party non-defamatory information that would discredit, embarrass, or incriminate the victim, (83) or threats to prosecute a person in affinity with the victim in respect of conduct that is entirely unassociated with the transaction between coercer
and victim (84)--rather than against her physical, proprietary, or purely economic interests.
In the latter cases it seems proper to deny the actor's duress claim unless the harm averted by submitting to the threat is significantly greater than the one caused by complying with the coercer
The IMF should not be a policy coercer
. Its efficacy in that role has been mixed at best, and it is no longer obvious how coercion would be applied.
The fatal error that has dogged the abortion debate thus far, according to McDonagh, has been a failure to identify the fetus as the coercer
Two principal weaknesses result from the lack of a conceptual framework: the absence of agreed definitions of what coercion is and who the coercer
and target are; and disagreement on how to determine success.
Hosmer's concept is similar to Robert Pape's assertion regarding a denial strategy: "The coercer
must exploit the particular vulnerabilities of the opponent's specific strategy." (4) In the case Hosmer seeks to explain, conventional conflict, Pape notes the enemy's strategy is victory "by means of massive, heavily armed forces that fight intense, large-scale battles," and he advocates the destruction of those heavy forces through relentless air attack.
A traves de esta experiencia d Banco aprendio como coercer
a sociedades enteras -o al menos a sus lideres mas ambiciosos- mediante sus creditos que aseguraran las obras necesarias para el desarrollo de la infraestructura economica en el largo plazo.
An extreme example of this kind of case is intentional acquiescence in the face of coercion: doing what one's coercer
demands in order to avoid a still worse fate seems, on its face, to be a self-preserving rather than a self-abnegating act.