The two chapters by Ingham draw on a variety of texts in order to prove how vernacular bilingualism was a reality in late medieval England--though it can be only scantly apprehended given the number of textual witnesses available (see "Medieval Bilingualism in England: On the Rarity of Vernacular Code-Switching
" in Pahta et al.
Participants in both groups are linguistic straddlers who cope with these experiences by code-switching
to deflate and avoid tense or conflictual situations.
This discussion of local functions of code-switching
builds on a list in which there are places which have clear local functions and in which switching is frequent.
The intentional depiction of an artificial, static code-switching
disputes the hyphen ideology behind this notion, and advocates for a more fluid conceptualization of languages in contact.
In the case of Gibraltar, 'chaotic' code-switching
is an observable negotiation process, and the posit that Gibraltarians are not British, nor Spanish, but something else, is represented in the language; which becomes a tangible representation of meaning-making structures of the community members.
One of the main reasons for code-switching
in children is to achieve a communicative function; another one is to include everyone in the conversation.
He lays out the costs of code-switching
practice and pedagogy to students of colour.
, speakers usually switch between two languages within the same conversation, sometimes in the same sentence (Poplack, 1980), for example: "Leo un MAGAZINE" (I read magazine) (Poplack, 1980 p.
The discussion is complemented with examples from the ROThA corpus, illustrating the types of code-switching
(CS) (2) in the data.
Chapter 8--Code-switching and contrastive analysis: Tools of language and culture transform the dialectically diverse classroom, for example, presents strategies of contrastive analysis and code-switching
(style-shifting) to show how the language of a child's home community can be maintained while simultaneously adding the linguistic tools needed for success in broader society (Wheeler & Swords, 2015, p.
She furthermore describes the varieties of regional and popular Italian spoken in Sicily, the contexts in which each language is frequently used, bidirectional Italian-Sicilian code-switching
, and the attitudes towards Sicilian in Italy.
Kumanyika was referring to the subtle matter of code-switching
, or speaking one way to one's immediate peers and another way -- call it more "white" -- to a larger group.
This often leads to continuous code-switching