We separate biopores as those visible pores that are rounded; these pores are a consistent feature of coalesced soils.
Properties of coalesced and uncoalesced soils and the associated root concentrations
We continued the comparison between coalesced and uncoalesced soils with measurements of physical properties at the same 15 paired sites in the depth interval 20-80 mm.
The sites included normal coalesced orchard soils, those described in the previous section at the Ardmona and Tatura orchards, and the virgin soils.
Table 1 sets out some contrasting field properties of coalesced and uncoalesced soils.
1 shows an example of a coalesced state with its dense matrix and biopores.
The contrasting properties of the coalesced and uncoalesced soils are given in Table 2 together with the associated concentrations of tree roots.
Contrasting properties of coalesced and uncoalesced soils and associated concentrations of tree roots in orchard beds at 15 sites
of mean Soil property Coalesced Uncoalesced Root concentration 9.3 (1.7) 99.3 (9.3) (km/m3) Water stability (%) 95 93 Macroporosity (%) 20 36 Bulk density (Mg/m3) 1.4 (0.1) 0.8 (0.1) Penetration resistance (MPa) (approx.
Importantly, the concentration of tree roots is low in the coalesced soil but high in the uncoalesced soil.
The normal orchard soils became fully coalesced and developed high strength within 43 weeks.
In contrast, in the Tatura orchard, where time since soil preparation was less, the strength increases rapidly to the high values of normal fully coalesced soil of Table 2.