Research efforts of the NBS and PCA fellowship staff helped improve the general knowledge of phase equilibria among the oxides in cement clinker, and also led to additional insight to the limits of solid solution of other oxides in the primary clinker phases.
Until that time, the role of iron in clinker manufacture, hydration, and setting of portland cements was not well understood.
Early applications of x-ray crystallography using both single crystal and powder diffraction, as well as electron microscopy, were utilized to better understand the crystal chemistry of cement clinker compounds.
This calculation was widely adopted for production of clinker and development of clinker for special applications and is in use today, almost three-quarters of a century later, as part of the ASTM C 150 specification for hydraulic cements.
The second Director of the PCA Fellowship, Fred Ordway, summarized the knowledge of clinker phase crystal structures at this meeting.
The phase structure of the obtained spec clinker was investigated by X-ray analysis on the instrument ARL X'TRA.
Sulfoferrite clinker based on the pure components was presented sulfoferrite calcium and Belita (Fig.
Thus in this clinker is present in a large amount is not metabolized anhydrite (d = 3,50; 2,85 [Angstrom]).
Sulfoferrite clinker based on man-made materials are also designed to receive sulfoferrite calcium and Belita was presented single phase (Fig.
Anhydrite in the clinker at the same temperature and aging present in much smaller amount in comparison with the clinker based on the pure components.
The determination of mineral phases and chemical composition of natural clinker is vital in resolving problems concerning their genesis, correlation of coal beds, characterization of the protolith and assessment of potential environmental impacts of coal combustion.
The bulk chemical composition similarity of natural clinker with the volcanic materials from which the natural zeolites are originated by post-magmatic hydrothermal activity has motivated attempts of making zeolite from this geomaterial by Rios and co-workers (Rios & Williams, 2008; Rios et al., 2008a, 2008b, 2008c; Sandoval et al.
(2009) synthesized almost pure analcime with a high degree of crystallinity from natural clinker, optimizing the experimental conditions used by the pioneering work of Rios & Williams (2008).
Quantitative analysis by the Rietveld method (Rietveld, 1969; Young, 1993) has huge advantages over traditional methods using integrated intensities of a small set of reflections in limited angular intervals, since the overlap of the lines of a pattern of powder diffraction, especially in mineralogically complex samples such as the natural clinker, make it virtually impossible to carry out a rigorous analysis by conventional methods.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a petrographic characterization of the natural clinker produced by spontaneous combustion of coal beds Cerrejon Formation and to apply the Rietveld method to the quantitative phase analysis of this geological material.