In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the choreographies were designed to be viewed from all sides.
In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries dance increasingly moved onto a stage, which meant that one side only was the front, and that the focus of the performers' attention had to be directed out from the dance space into the body of the hall.
This close similarity in design principles between the horticultural and kinetic arts existed right through the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and continued into the seventeenth century.
Geometric Schemes for Plant Beds and Gardens: A Contribution to the History of the Garden in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.
Berlin's vision in Many Thousands Gone is bifocal, in the sense that he simultaneously tracks the people who were enslaved as well as the institution of slavery that appears in the book's title; the book might well have been subtitled The First Two Centuries
of North America's Enslaved.
McBeth, The Baptist Heritage: Four Centuries
of Baptist Witness (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1954), 768.
72; Rudi Matthee, "Exotic Substances: the Introduction and Global Spread of Tobacco, Coffee, Cocoa, Tea and Distilled Liquor, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries," in Roy Porter and Mikulas Teich, eds.
Wills, "European Consumption and Asian production in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries," in Consumption and the World of Goods, John Brewer and Roy Porter, eds.
Smith, "From Coffeehouse to Parlour: the consumption of coffee, tea and sugar in north-western Europe in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," in Jordan Goodman, Paul E.
Guild and clandestine labor had coexisted for centuries without undoing the supremacy of the former.
As police reports from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries show, the Place, along with the market of Les Halles, attracted much of the flotsam and jetsam of the urban populace: members of the "laboring classes" like the stonemasons, but also the so-called "dangerous classes"-an elusive cl assification that included criminals and the indigent.
69] But even aside from this, the stonemasons were a familiar part of Paris' social landscape in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to their presence at the hiring fair, because they worked in plain view on many of the capital's great construction projects, were marked by distinctive habits and resided in the notorious boardinghouses of the central city.
By the 1830s, police had developed a near preoccupation with the Place de Greve, though spying on crowds had occurred there for centuries.
Representational, political, economic, demographic and centralizing developments converged in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to render the Place de Greve a contentious setting and the migrant stonemasons who attended its daily hiring fair a suspicious population.
Together, these fascinating books depict a significant expansion of epistolary culture in the French-speaking world between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries