when it is the mnemic portion of the cause of future occurrences in the animal's life.
The observable fact is that, when a certain complex of stimuli has originally caused a certain complex of reactions, the recurrence of part of the stimuli tends to cause the recurrence of the whole of the reactions.
By this I mean that kind of causation of which I spoke at the beginning of this lecture, that kind, namely, in which the proximate cause consists not merely of a present event, but of this together with a past event.
IF A COMPLEX STIMULUS A HAS CAUSED A COMPLEX REACTION B IN AN ORGANISM, THE OCCURRENCE OF A PART OF A ON A FUTURE OCCASION TENDS TO CAUSE THE WHOLE REACTION B.
in the past, together with X now, cause Y now," we will call A, B, C, .
That is to say, they believe that every psychical event has a psychical cause and a physical concomitant.
The metaphysical conception of a cause lingers in our manner of viewing causal laws: we want to be able to FEEL a connection between cause and effect, and to be able to imagine the cause as "operating.
As to those just causes of war which proceed from direct and unlawful violence, it appears equally clear to me that one good national government affords vastly more security against dangers of that sort than can be derived from any other quarter.
The neighborhood of Spanish and British territories, bordering on some States and not on others, naturally confines the causes of quarrel more immediately to the borderers.
But not only fewer just causes of war will be given by the national government, but it will also be more in their power to accommodate and settle them amicably.
The most bigoted idolizers of State authority have not thus far shown a disposition to deny the national judiciary the cognizances of maritime causes.
This corresponds with the two first classes of causes, which have been enumerated, as proper for the jurisdiction of the United States.
It has also been asked, what need of the word "equity What equitable causes can grow out of the Constitution and laws of the United States?
These form, altogether, the fifth of the enumerated classes of causes proper for the cognizance of the national courts.
No man ought certainly to be a judge in his own cause, or in any cause in respect to which he has the least interest or bias.