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To expose one's deception or other wrongdoing. A noun or pronoun can be used between "catch" and "out." I wouldn't lie to the detective—her whole job is to catch you out! The CEO was finally caught out and his embezzlement scandal exposed.
catch someone out
to discover the truth about someone's deception. The investigator tried to catch me out, but I stuck to my story. The teacher caught out the student and punished him immediately.
To detect or expose the error, wrongdoing, or shortcoming of someone: The test is designed to catch you out with trick questions. I got caught out in a lie.