carbon

(redirected from carbon 14)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to carbon 14: Carbon 14 dating

carbon copy

1. A copy of a document that is made by placing a sheet of carbon paper under the original so that the print gets transferred from the original to the sheet of paper below it. Carbon copies are largely obsolete but are still used in some cases for receipts. Could you please make a carbon copy of that invoice? I need it for my records.
2. To include additional recipients on an email message that is intended for, or directed to, another person. Often abbreviated as "cc." Please carbon copy me on that email to Janice. I want her to know I am aware of the situation.
3. A person or thing that closely resembles someone or something else in looks or attributes. Even though they were born several years apart, Darren is a carbon copy of his brother. They have the same gait, mannerisms, and hairstyle.
See also: carbon, copy

carbon copy

A person or thing that closely resembles another, as in Our grandson is a carbon copy of his dad. Originally this term meant a copy of a document made by using carbon paper. The linguistic transfer to other kinds of duplicate survived the demise of carbon paper (replaced by photocopiers, computer printers, and other more sophisticated devices). [c. 1870]
See also: carbon, copy

a carbon copy

COMMON If one person or thing is a carbon copy of another, the two people or things are identical, or very similar. Hugh was a carbon copy of his father, Edward; both had the same blond hair and easy charm. The town, almost a carbon copy of Gualdo, is best known for its mineral waters. Note: A carbon copy of a document is an exact copy of it which is made using carbon paper.
See also: carbon, copy

carbon copy

a person or thing identical or very similar to another.
The expression comes from the idea of an exact copy of written or typed material made by using carbon paper.
See also: carbon, copy

a ˌcarbon ˈcopy

a person or thing that is exactly or extremely like another: The recent robberies in Leeds are a carbon copy of those that have occurred in Halifax over the last few months.
A carbon copy is a copy of a document, letter, etc. made by placing carbon paper (= thin paper with a dark substance on one side) between two sheets of paper.
See also: carbon, copy

carbon copy

Also, cc. An exact duplication. The original carbon copy, long used for correspondence and other written materials, was made by placing a sheet of carbon paper between two sheets of paper, the top one to be copied onto the blank bottom sheet by pressure from a pen, typewriter, or other instrument. Although this type of duplication has become largely obsolete, replaced by photocopying and electronic printers, it survives in the abbreviation cc, used to signal additional recipients of a letter or e-mail. A 1981 film, Carbon Copy, uses the term in the figurative sense; in it a white man discovers he has a black son who wants to be adopted.
See also: carbon, copy

carbon footprint

The total contribution of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases by a particular activity, enterprise, or product. The increasing concern about the harmful effect of human activity on the environment has promoted the use of this term, which may soon be a cliché. The Boston Globe travel section headlined an article on “green” (ecologically harmless) vacations: “Leave Your Carbon Footprint at Home” (June 6, 2010). Gregg Hurwitz’s novel They’re Watching (2010) has the lines, “‘What’s a lifestyle coach do, exactly?’ I asked. ‘We’re working on reducing Keith’s carbon footprint.’”
See also: carbon
References in periodicals archive ?
One of the best known examples of this is the effort to find a correlation between tree-ring dating and carbon 14 dating.
So, even in this case, using the most accurate of the dating methods (dendrochronology) to establish a correlation with the next most accurate method (carbon 14), there is a disparity.
(16) Yaacov Hanoka, "Torah, Science and Carbon 14," B'Or Ha'Torah, vol.
Now, Edouard Bard of the Center for Weak Radioactivity in Gif-sur-Yvette, France and his colleagues report they have used coral to calibrate the carbon 14 scale over the past 30,000 years, an advance one scientist describes as a "quantum leap." Their results suggest the carbon 14 method errs by a wide span -- producing dates as much as 3,500 years too young for material from 20,000 years ago, says the research team, which consists of Bard, Bruno Hamelin of the University of Aix-Marseille III and Richard G.
While carbon 14 specialists expected the scale needed correction, "They are all surprised it's that large," says Fairbanks.
Carbon dating involves measuring radioactive atoms of carbon 14 locked within organic material from plants and animals, which take up the carbon only while alive.
The timescale is not perfectly accurate, though, because the amount of carbon 14 in the environment fluctuates.
Because DNA is stable after a cell has gone through its last cell division, the concentration of carbon 14 in DNA serves as a date mark for when a cell was born and can be used to date cells in humans.
After death, levels of this isotope in animal and plant remains will slowly decay away, meaning scientists can estimate their age from the amount of carbon 14 that remains in the sample.
Phials of whisky extracted from the antique bottles are sent to the laboratory in Oxford, where the scientists burn the liquid and bombard the resulting gas with electrically charged particles so they can measure the quantities of carbon 14 in the sample.
Buchholz used the Laboratory's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry to measure the amount of carbon 14 in DNA to establish the age of cardiac muscle cells in humans.
The researcher revealed that the study group determined the ages of heart cells by determining the time at which the sample's carbon 14 concentration corresponded to the atmospheric concentration.
In the study, carbon 14 concentrations were elevated in subjects compared to those people born up to 22 years before the beginning of nuclear bomb tests.
While the limited recovery in humans after a heart injury or attack indicates failing regeneration of heart cells, the researchers say that the renewal of heart cells, as indicated by the mixing of carbon 14 in the DNA, suggest that the development of pharmacological strategies to stimulate this process may be a rational alternative or complement to cell transplantation strategies for heart cell replacement.