Exposing brooded embryos to low salinities for 48 h had no significant effect ([F.sub.3,8] = 2.17, P = 0.17) on juvenile survival (Experiment 2, Fig.
Finally, hypoxic conditions experienced by brooded embryos for up to 96 h had no detrimental effects on juvenile growth (Fig.
Active brood care in the Anomuran crab Petrolisthes violaceus (Decapoda: Anomura: Porcellanidae): grooming of brooded
embryos by the fifth pereipods.
Sixteen days after brooded embryos were observed, colonies were transferred back to the laboratory for larval release, which was conducted over the next 4 days.
By day 23 post-settlement, all reproductively mature colonies brooded embryos.
Although observations are few, the eggs brooded by octopuses of Graneledone appeared to be more sausage-shaped and the eggs of Benthoctopus more teardrop-shaped.
Although warm (25[degrees]C) springs exist on Baby Bare (Mottl et al., 1998), octopus eggs are brooded in rock crevices on the outcrop's flanks where the temperature is essentially unchanged from ambient.
The velar ciliature in the brooded
larva of the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis (Philippi, 1845).
Pelagic larvae possess structures specialized for swimming and feeding, but it is unlikely that brooded larvae have the same requirements, especially if the brooding period is long, as in the Chilean oyster (8 weeks).
The few studies that have been undertaken on brooded embryos or larvae have shown that cilia first appear at later stages of development: Ostrea lurida, trochophore stage (Hopkins, 1936); O.
By totaling the number of living pentactulae, dead pentactulae, and calcareous rings, the initial number of brooded pentactulae ([N.sub.0]) could be determined and mortality calculated.
Females generally brooded a lower number of pentactulae (Table I), and the number of females that had lost the entire brood was higher in the 1990-1991 reproductive season (1989-1990: 1 female; 1990-1991: 8 females; [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2 OMITTED]); a season that was marked by unusually cold conditions in December and January (days with temperatures below 0 [degree] C in December and January: 1989-1990 = 9 d; 1990-1991 = 25 d; P.
If there are no constraints on brood size, the number of embryos brooded is assumed to scale with body size in the same way as the fecundity of broadcast spawning animals; i.e., linearly with body weight or the cube of length (Strathmann and Strathmann, 1982).
Weak relationships were found between female size and the number of pentactulac brooded (Table III).