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Throughout the 19th century, there were multiple theological arguments related to the Brethren mode of baptism and a tightening of the requirement that Brethren could only become members if they received baptism by forward trine immersion.
(12) In 1848, Annual Conference, the Brethren governing body, wrote a formula for baptism.
Brethren also feared innovation and adopting practices found in other denominations.
This history points to the fact that Brethren repeatedly expressed concerns about the ways that other Christian groups were potentially impacting and corrupting the "true" practice of baptism, which Brethren understood as trine forward immersion.
Brethren have continually reinforced several key theological themes in relation to baptism.
Brethren have not held, however, that baptism is a requirement for salvation.
A second important area of continuity in Brethren belief has been the notion of covenant.
The key point of belief for Brethren around baptism, then, relates to the close connection Brethren have held between obedience and the actual act of baptism.
However, they precipitated the Brethren decision to inaugurate a new congregation through immersion baptism in 1708 in Schwarzenau, their place of refuge in Wittgenstein.
He argues that "the Brethren must be seen primarily within the Anabaptist heritage," yet without ignoring that "certain elements of their radical Pietist background remained with them" (63).
The book includes chapters on Brethren expansion to Ysenburg, Crefeld and Friesland in Europe, and on external suppression and finally their emigration to Pennsylvania.
Durnbaugh has sumptuously documented his story of Brethren beginnings with endnotes that continue to serve scholars well.
The Brethren Encyclopedia can be congratulated for printing this work.
The repeated use of brethren, rather than brothers, in Act I of Titus Andronicus thus differentiates this piece of writing from anything else of comparable size in the Shakespeare canon.
The Tittus references (from Spevack, Riverside numbering) are: brethren I.i.89, 104, 122, 123, 146, 160 (brethren's), 348, 357, V.i.104; brothers I.i.287, III.1.30, 49, 109, 111, 166 (brothers'), 180, V.ii.173, V.iii.100.