Is batting out of order the only way that can happen?
Having an out added to a player's stats, without making an "official" at-bat, can only occur when that player is ruled out due to his team being penalized for batting out of turn, while it's his position in the batting order.
He quoted a part of Rule 44 that said "should the batsman declared out under this section [for batting out
of order] be the third out and his team thereby be put out, the proper batsman in the next inning shall be the player who would have come to bat had the players been put out by ordinary play in the preceding inning." (That language is not in the current rule.) If "ordinary play" means the batters hit in the proper order and made three outs, then Siebert would have started the third.
The appellant has merely committed a popular mistake--erroneously assumed that a hitter batting out of order is going to be called out.
It is certainly evident that the waiting game can be a powerful weapon when the manager recognizes an opponent batting out of order.
The batting out of order rule should be thoroughly studied by all managers in order to obtain the maximum benefits.
There were 399 free-agent hitters between 1977 and 2001 with at least 300 batting outs (AB-H) in the season before becoming a free agent.
A third bias, which would also amplify any positive results, is that players having a bad free-agent year would likely be benched, and would therefore fail to meet the playing time requirements (20 starts or 300 batting outs) of this study.
425 batting outs
is about 17 games' worth (there are about 25.5 hitless at-bats per game), and 17 games at one run per game again gives us 17 runs.
As with the James's algorithms, games played, batting outs (AB-H) and strikeouts remained the same.
Note that in order for the hits to come out right, you also must assume that 5% of batting outs are taken away from singles (in order for the batting outs to remain the same, those 5% of batting outs which have been allotted to doubles and triples must come from somewhere).