With maximum effort, energy, or speed, and without caution or restraint. The phrase most likely originated as an railroad engineering term, referring to the mechanical governor of steam locomotives, which has two weighted steel balls that extend to the "balls out" position when at maximum speed. While it does not in fact refer to testicles, it should be used with caution because of this popular association. If we're going to win this battle, we have to go absolutely balls-out!
Farlex Dictionary of Idioms. © 2015 Farlex, Inc, all rights reserved.