The perceptual map shows that there is an unequal distribution among the vowel phonemes in the vowel class, with a pronounced division in the vowel elements considering backness
. The front vowels are clustered in the lower right, the back vowels are displayed on the left of the map and the central vowel /a/ is seen in the upper right.
The F0 mean values of the vowels set the basis for assessing vowel height and vowel backness
as patterns associated with IF0.
The system now contains two binary oppositions, in backness
and labialization: [u, I, e, (< *a, *a, *e), o (11) (< *u, *o, *o)].
(5.) There is an inherent tension between the frontness of [i] and the backness
of [q] which invites changes.
In articulatory phonetics vowels are mainly described in terms of three features: (1) height of the tongue (2) backness
of the tongue and (3) lip rounding.
For all three speakers, aa and aa are pronounced with approximately the same vowel height, whereas they differ in backness
. However, lip-rounding or some other articulatory feature most likely play an additional role in maintaining this contrast.
Thus the suffixes in (2) harmonize with the corresponding stems in backness
and partially also in rounding (2a).
Like the brilliant city he is from Mr Hudson mixes the beautiful laid backness
of the Afro-Caribbean community with fantastical one liners that only a Brummie can muster.
As the above considerations have shown, /r/ repetition is crucial in DC, manifested also in feature harmony (backness
According to Bollinger (1989), whereas full vowels are distinguished by their quality such as height, backness
and roundness, reduced vowels can't be recognized by these characteristics.
Rhotacization is an auditory quality, which, like height and backness
, is most appropriately defined in acoustic terms.
Generally in articulatory phonetics vowel segments are described in shape of height of the tongue; backness
of the tongue and lip rounding.
While keeping an eye on the patterns shown in Figure 6 (left and mid) in which the effect of [F.sub.2] is evident, most attention should be paid to Figure 6 (right) in which [F.sub.3] and [F.sub.4] are displayed and the drop in frequencies related to backness
When comparing the three places of articulation, it is apparent that VOT is significantly longer for velars than for bilabials and alveolars and that it increases with backness
Accordingly,/E/represents vowels that undergo harmony for backness
, and /I/ for both backness